Uncategorized

Endnotes & Works Cited

Endnotes

[1] These sources include history texts but are not limited to popular writing, textbooks on history.

[2] Dolores Hayden, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History (Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2006), 13.

[3] Nicola King, Memory, Narrative, Identity: Remembering the Self (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000), 15.

[4] Leonard Bernardo and Jennifer Weiss, Brooklyn By Name: How the Neighborhoods, Streets, Parks, Bridges, and More Got Their Names (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 3; Craig Steven Wilder, A Covenant with Color: Race and Social Power in Brooklyn (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 6; ie. “Breuckelen” “Midwout” “Boswyck.”

[5] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 45.

[6] Elliot Willensky, When Brooklyn Was the World, 1920-1957 (New York: Harmony Books, 1986), 55-56, 62.

[7] Willensky, When Brooklyn Was the World, 1920-1957, 231.

[8] “Levittown: The Imperfect Rise of the American Suburbs,” U.S. History Scene, accessed April 27, 2017, http://ushistoryscene.com/article/levittown/.

[9] Ellen Snyder-Grenier, Brooklyn!: An Illustrated History (Pennsylvania: Temple University Press, 1996), 108-109.

[10] Michel Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (Boston: Beacon Press, 2015), 97.

[11] Marc Linder and Lawrence S. Zacharias, Of Cabbages & Kings County: Agriculture & the Formation of Modern Brooklyn (Iowa: Iowa University Press, 1999), 79.

[12] Linder & Zacharias, Of Cabbages & Kings County, 79.

[13] Battle for Brooklyn, film, directed by Michael Galinsky and Suki Hawley (2011; Brooklyn, RumuR Inc.); “Pacific Park’s Next Affordable Housing Lottery will Launch this Week,” Curbed: New York, accessed April 27, 2017, http://ny.curbed.com/2017/1/11/14238100/pacific-park-brooklyn-38-sixth-avenue-affordable-housing-lottery.

[14] “Haunts; What Does the Brooklyn of the New Barclays Center Have to Do with the Brooklyns That Came before It? A Native Son Walks among the Ghosts,” New York Magazine, accessed April 27, 2017, http://nymag.com/news/features/brooklyn-barclays-center-2012-10/.

[15] “Haunts; What Does the Brooklyn of the New Barclays Center Have to Do with the Brooklyns That Came before It? A Native Son Walks among the Ghosts.”

[16] “I looked at the site. A hole in ground in a dangerous area, some train tracks. But I liked the idea. I wasn’t thinking residential. I didn’t know residential. I was thinking outlet retail. Big-box stuff. That was where my liberalism came in.” quoted from film, Battle for Brooklyn.

[17] Howard B. Rock, Cityscapes: A History of New York in Images (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), xi.

[18] Rock, Cityscapes, 226.

[19] “Brooklyn’s African American Remains Largely Forgotten and Unmarked,” Huffington Post, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alan-singer/brooklyns-african-america_b_1772465.html.

[20] Holder Henke, The West Indian Americans (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001), xviii; Wilder, A Covenant with Color.

[21] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 213.

[22] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, xxiii.

[23] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 150; This quote from Peter Nicholls draws a parallel between haunting and the ghost of Beloved as a violent reckoning with the past.

[24] This quote was used in reference to the embodiment of Beloved. But whereas “Beloved uses the form of the novel to respect and represent the gaps, silences and dislocations which are the full marks of suffering,” I use a digital memorial, continuously drawing from the literary examples throughout the novel⁠.1
1 King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 153

[25] Pierre Nora, introduction to Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 4.

[26] Nora, Realms of Memory, 4.

[27] Nora, introduction, 19.

[28] Hayden, The Power of Place, 8.

[29] Hayden, The Power of Place, 9.

[30] “Brooklyn’s African American Remains Largely Forgotten and Unmarked,” Huffington Post, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alan-singer/brooklyns-african-america_b_1772465.html.

[31] “Brooklyn’s African American Remains Largely Forgotten and Unmarked.”

[32] “Brooklyn’s African American Remains Largely Forgotten and Unmarked.”

[33] SD Brown, “Two Minutes of Silence: Social Technologies of Public Commemoration,” Theory and Psychology 22 (2012): 234.

[34] Brown, “Two Minutes of Silence: Social Technologies of Public Commemoration,” 247.

[35] Brown, “Two Minutes of Silence: Social Technologies of Public Commemoration,” 248.

[36] Hayden, The Power of Place, 11.

[37] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past 26.

[38] “Geographic information system,” Wikipedia, accessed April 12, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geographic_information_system&oldid=774916687.

[39] “Sites of Memory,” Archive-It, accessed April 27, 2017, https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/holtorf/2.6.html.

[40] Nora, introduction, 8.

[41] Nora, introduction, 8.

[42] Nora, introduction, 7.

[43] Nora, introduction, 14.

[44] Marisa Parham differentiates between memory and haunting in _Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture_, stating that “when one is faced with a bad memory, a funky, unruly memory, it is really just that, a bad memory. Now, if one were to experience someone else’s funk, then one would be haunted.” (2) An encounter with Black Brooklyn’s generational silence bestows this haunting.

[45] “On Disruption, Race, and the Digital Humanities,” Roopika Risam, accessed April 27, 2017, http://roopikarisam.com/uncategorized/on-disruption-race-and-the-digital-humanities/.

[46] “Black Tweets Matter: How the tumultuous, hilarious, wide-ranging chat party on Twitter changed the face of activism in America,” Smithsonian Magazine, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/.

[47] “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon,” Debates in the Digital Humanities, accessed April 27, 2017, http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/16.

[48] “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon.”

[49] “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon.”

[50] “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon.”

[51] John Cage, 1959: 135.

[52] W John Morgan and Ana Cristina Zimmermann, “A Time for Silence? It’s Possibilities for Dialogue and for Reflective Learning,” Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35(2016): 399.

[53] Marisa Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture (New York: Routledge, 2009), 73.

[54] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 14.

[55] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 14.

[56] Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York and Scarorough, Ontario: First Plume Printing, 1988), 190.

[57] Nicola King references Toni Morrison’s commentary on America’s telling of slavery through a close reading of Beloved; King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 152.

[58] Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture, 76.

[59] Formulas of erasure: “formulas that tend to erase directly from the fact.” Formulas of banalization: formulas that tend to “empty number of singular events of their … content so that the entire string of facts, gnawed from all sides, becomes trivialized.” Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 96.

[60] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 27-28.

[61] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 30.

[62] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 30.

[63] John Louis Flateua, “Black Brooklyn: the Politics of Ethnicity, Class, and Gender” (PhD thesis, City University of New York, 2005).

[64] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 30.

[65] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 96.

[66] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 84.

[67] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 100;
Flateua, “Black Brooklyn: the Politics of Ethnicity, Class, and Gender.”

[68] http://archive.blackgothamarchive.org/rayobituary; Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 103.

[69] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 118.

[70] Kamau Ware, “Black Gotham,” Walking tour, Manhattan, NYC, August 2016; Weeksville Heritage Museum, “Weeksville Tour,” Tour, Brooklyn, NY, November 2016.

[71] Hayden, The Power of Place, 228.

[72] David Wood, “On Working with Opaque Silence in Group Psychotherapy” Group Analysis; Sage Publications, Ltd., 49(2016).

[73] Wood, “On Working with Opaque Silence,” 235.

[74] Wood, “On Working with Opaque Silence.”

[75] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 153.

[76] Wood, “On Working with Opaque Silence.”

[77] For example, infanticide, Gumboot dance/ stepping, jumping over ships traveling the Atlantic during the Middle Passage, etc.

[78] Morrison, Beloved, 53.

[79] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 157

[80] Morgan and Zimmermann, “A Time for Silence?”

[81] Wood, “On Working with Opaque Silence.”

[82] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 69-70; The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Archives Division

[83] Referenced as an ‘ocean-deep place’ in King, Memory, Narrative, Identity.

[84] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 13, 15.

[85] Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture, 78.

[86] Goodheart 1993: 9 referenced in King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 158.

[87] Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture, 1-2.

[88] Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture, 78.

[89] Nora, introduction, 6.

[90] Nora, introduction, 6.

[91] Morrison, Beloved, 53.

[92] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 151.

[93] Nora, introduction, 7.

[94] Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 22.

[95] “Geographic information system.”

[96] Townships were usually subdivisions of counties. Some of the recurring and growing ones were Brooklyn, Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, Gravesend, and New Utrick/ Utretcht.

[97] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 17.

[98] Wilder, A Covenant with Color.

[99] “‘White Flight’ Began a Lot Earlier than We Think,” The Washington Post, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/03/17/white-flight-began-a-lot-earlier-than-we-think/.

[100] “Voting in Early America,” Colonial Williamsburg: That the Future May Learn from the Past, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/spring07/elections.cfm.

[101] “Recent Student Publications,” Brown University: Sociology, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.brown.edu/academics/sociology/recent-student-publications.

[102] John Logan, “Before The Philadelphia Negro: Black Residential Patterns in the Late Nineteenth Century” (presented at the ISSR Seminar, UMass Amherst, 107 Bartlett Hall, Amherst, MA, February 2, 2017).

[103] “Here’s How Long Black Families Must Work to Amass the Same Wealth As White Families,” Mic.com, accessed April 11, 2017, https://mic.com/articles/151029/racial-wage-gap-housing-discrimination-equal-pay-wealth-inequality.

[104] “Here’s How Long Black Families Must Work to Amass the Same Wealth As White Families.”

[105] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 178.; “German residents keep homes neat and orderly,” “they approved of “British” ancestry of its inhabitants,” “infiltration of lower grade [Italian] population.”⁠[1] Placed black people on the bottom of a racial hierarchy [order: British, German, Irish, Jewish/ Irish/ Italian, Scandinavian/ Danish, Swedish, “distinctly undesirable” “mixture of low grade races⁠.”[2] Deeming neighborhoods undesirable based on their ethnic compositions calcifies who’s ethnicity was worthy of good treatment and commemoration.
1 Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 190.
2 Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 192.

[106] Hayden, The Power of Place, 24.

[107] “Brooklyn: Borough, New York City, New York, United States,” Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/place/Brooklyn-borough-New-York-City.

[108] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 4.

[109] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 19.

[110] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 35.

[111] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 67.

[112] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 36.

[113] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 39.

[114] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 60-61

[115] James Weldon Johnson, Along This Way: The Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson (1933; New York Amsterdam: Penguin, 1990), 46-50, 202.

[116] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 117.

[117] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 118.

[118] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 117.

[119] “The Great Migration and the ‘Promised Land,'” Boundless.com, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.boundless.com/users/140930/textbooks/the-unfinished-nation-a-concise-history-of-the-american-people-07bb588b-4513-4fb8-9f12-9bb5c6d808eb/world-war-i-1914-1919-21/the-american-151/the-great-migration-and-the-promised-land-777-9256/.

[120] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 123.

[121] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 122.

[122] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 123.

[123] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 123-124.

[124] “‘White Flight’ Began a Lot Earlier than We Think.”

[125] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 125.

[126] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 127.

[127] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 127-134.

[128] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 210.

[129] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 212.

[130] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 186.

[131] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 212.

[132] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 186.

[133] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 193-194.

[134] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 195.

[135] Henke, The West Indian Americans, 42.

[136] Christine M. DuBois and Stephan Palmie, “Caribbean Migrations and Diasporas” in The Caribbean A History of the Region and Its People (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011)

[137] Suleiman Osman, The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn: Gentrification and the Search for Authenticity in Postwar New York (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 42-43

[138] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 239.

[139] Hayden, The Power of Place, 53.

[140] Nora, introduction, 15.

[141] Herbert J. Gabs as quoted in Hayden, The Power of Place, 3.

[142] Nora, introduction.

[143] Nora, introduction, 17.

[144] Nora, introduction, 19.

[145] Parham, Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture, 76; This idea of tracking power and including all actors in history-makers referenced here was proposed by Michel-Rolph Trouillot in Silencing the Past, 25; Herbert J Gabs in Hayden, The Power of Place, 3

[146] Nora, introduction, 15.

[147] “Brooklyn Collection,” Brooklyn Public Library, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.bklynlibrary.org/brooklyncollection.

[148] “Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture,” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.nypl.org/locations/schomburg.

[149] Pierre Nora, foreword to Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), xvii.

[150] Hayden, The Power of Place, 47.

[151] Hayden, The Power of Place, 47.

[152] Hayden, The Power of Place, 85.

[153] Hayden, The Power of Place, 7.

[154] “All the Digital Humanists are White, All the Nerds are Men, but Some of Us are Brave,” Journal of Digital Humanities, accessed April 27, 2017, http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-1/all-the-digital-humanists-are-white-all-the-nerds-are-men-but-some-of-us-are-brave-by-moya-z-bailey/.

[155] “Addressing Archival Silence on 19th Century Colonialism: Part 2: Creating a Nineteenth Century ‘Postcolonial’ Archive,” Adeline Koh, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.adelinekoh.org/blog/2012/03/04/addressing-archival-silence-on-19th-century-colonialism-part-2-creating-a-nineteenth-century-postcolonial-archive/.

[156] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 193-194.

[157] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 13.

[158] “DH, Archival Silence, and Linked Open Data,” Roger Whitson, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.rogerwhitson.net/?p=1509.

[159] Wilder, A Covenant with Color, 139.

[160] Hayden, The Power of Place, 43.

[161] “‘Rememory’ recognises the fact that there are some events that tear the fabric of social space or shatter our sense of time as normally experienced.”⁠1
1 King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 161.

[162] Nora, introduction, 18.

[163] Nora, introduction, 18.

[164] Hayden, The Power of Place, 46.

[165] Whereas Beloved in Toni Morrison’s _Beloved_ is the literary analogue to the haunting experience of the Middle Passage and other forms of black movement, virtual reality is the digital analogue of journeying through silences of Black Brooklyn.

[166] King, Memory, Narrative, Identity, 15.

[167] “Paul Goodman on the Nine Kinds of Silence,” Brain Pickings, accessed April 27, 2017, https://www.brainpickings.org/2015/01/13/paul-goodman-silence/.

[168] Denise Gastaldo and Make Kawabata, “The Less Said, the Better: Interpreting Silence in Qualitative Research” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 14(2016), 2

[169] Morgan and Zimmermann, “A Time for Silence?”, 410.

[170] Morrison, Beloved, 36

[171] Linder and Zacharias, Of Cabbages & Kings County, 125; DuBois and Palmie, “Caribbean Migrations and Diasporas.”; Willensky, _When Brooklyn Was the World_, 55-56, 62

[172] Hayden, The Power of Place, 9.

[173] Caddie Alford, Twitter post, November 30, 2017, 4:30 p.m., https://twitter.com/caddie_alford.

[174] Nora, introduction, 3.

[175] Hayden, The Power of Place, 227.

 


Works Cited

Badger, Emily. “‘White Flight’ Began a Lot Earlier than We Think.” Washington Post, March 17, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/03/17/white-flight-began-a-lot-earlier-than-we-think/.

Bailey, Moya Z. “All the Digital Humanists Are White, All the Nerds Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave.” Journal of Digital Humanities, March 9, 2012. http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-1/all-the-digital-humanists-are-white-all-the-nerds-are-men-but-some-of-us-are-brave-by-moya-z-bailey/.

Battle for Brooklyn. Documentary. RUMUR, 2011.

Benardo, Leonard, and Jennifer Weiss. Brooklyn by Name: How the Neighborhoods, Streets, Parks, Bridges, and More Got Their Names. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Boundless. “The Great Migration and the ‘Promised Land.’” Boundless, May 26, 2016. /users/140930/textbooks/the-unfinished-nation-a-concise-history-of-the-american-people-07bb588b-4513-4fb8-9f12-9bb5c6d808eb/world-war-i-1914-1919-21/the-american-151/the-great-migration-and-the-promised-land-777-9256/.

“Brooklyn | Borough, New York City, New York, United States.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed April 13, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/place/Brooklyn-borough-New-York-City.

Brown, SD. “Two Minutes of Silence: Social Technologies of Public Commemoration.” Theory & Psychology 22, no. 2 (April 2012): 234–52.

Dennin, James. “Here’s How Long Black Families Must Work to Amass the Same Wealth as White Families.” Accessed April 11, 2017. https://mic.com/articles/151029/racial-wage-gap-housing-discrimination-equal-pay-wealth-inequality.

“Develop – Don’t Destroy.” Archive site, community site. Develop – Don’t Destroy., n.d. http://www.dddb.net/php/latestnews_ArchiveDate.php.

DuBois, Christine M. “Caribbean Migrations and Diasporas.” Edited by Stephan Palmie and Francisco A. Scarano. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples, 2011, 583–96.

Earhart, Amy E. “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon.” Debates in Digital Humanities 2012 Print Edition (2012). http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/part/5.

Flateau, John Louis. “Black Brooklyn: The Politics of Ethnicity, Class, and Gender,” 2005.

Galyean, Crystal. “Levittown: The Imperfect Rise of the American Suburbs.” Academic Database. US History Scene, April 10, 2015. http://ushistoryscene.com/article/levittown/.

Gastaldo, Denise, and Make Kawabata. “The Less Said, the Better: Interpreting Silence in Qualitative Research.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 14, no. 4 (November 2015): 1–9. doi:10.1177/1609406915618123.

Gatwiri, Glory Joy, and Karanja Anne Mumbi. “Silence as Power: Women Bargaining with Patriarchy in Kenya.” Social Alternatives 35, no. 1 (2016): 13–18.

“Geographic Information System.” Wikipedia, April 11, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geographic_information_system&oldid=774916687.

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History / Dolores Hayden. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2006.

Henke, Holger. The West Indian Americans. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Jacobson, Marc. “Haunts; What Does the Brooklyn of the New Barclays Center Have to Do with the Brooklyns That Came before It? A Native Son Walks among the Ghosts.” New York Magazine, September 23, 2012. http://nymag.com/news/features/brooklyn-barclays-center-2012-10/.

Kasinitz, Philip. Caribbean New York: Black Immigrants and the Politics of Race. 1st ed. The Anthropology of Contemporary Issues. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1992.

King, Nicola. Memory, Narrative, Identity: Remembering the Self. Tendencies: Identities, Texts, Cultures. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

Koh, Adeline. “Addressing Archival Silence on 19th Century Colonialism – Part 2: Creating a Nineteenth Century ‘Postcolonial’ Archive.” Adeline Koh, March 4, 2012. http://www.adelinekoh.org/blog/2012/03/04/addressing-archival-silence-on-19th-century-colonialism-part-2-creating-a-nineteenth-century-postcolonial-archive/.

Linder, Marc, and Lawrence S. Zacharias. Of Cabbages & Kings County: Agriculture & the Formation of Modern Brooklyn. 1st ed. University of Iowa Press, 1999.

Logan, John. “Before The Philadelphia Negro: Black Residential Patterns in the Late Nineteenth Century.” presented at the ISSR Seminar, UMass Amherst, 107 Bartlett Hall, February 2, 2017. http://www.umass.edu/issr/events/issr-seminar-philadelphia-negro-black-residential-patterns-late-nineteenth-century.

Meyer, Morgan. “A Space for Silence: Exhibiting and Materializing Silence through Technology.” Cultural Geographies, June 14, 2015, 1–16. doi:10.1177/1474474015588708.

Morgan, W John, and Ana Cristina Zimmermann. “A Time for Silence? Its Possibilities for Dialogue and for Reflective Learning.” Studies in Philosophy and Education 35, no. 4 (July 2016): 399–413.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York and Scarborough, Ontario: First Plume Printing, 1988.

Net Income. “Arena Naming Rights Less Than First Reported but Still the Richest Ever.” Information Site. SB Nation Nets Daily, September 19, 2011. http://www.netsdaily.com/2011/9/19/2435610/sbj-says-arena-naming-rights-less-than-originally-reported-but-still.

Nora, Pierre, and Lawrence D. Kritzman. Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. European Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Oder, Norman. “Atlantic Yards/ Pacific Park Report.” Blog. Atlantic Yards/ Pacific Park Report, 2017 2006. http://atlanticyardsreport.blogspot.com.

Osman, Suleiman. The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn: Gentrification and the Search for Authenticity in Postwar New York. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Parham, Marisa. Haunting and Displacement in African American Literature and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Popova, Maria. “Paul Goodman on the Nine Kinds of Silence.” Brain Pickings, January 13, 2015. https://www.brainpickings.org/2015/01/13/paul-goodman-silence/.

“Prologue: Selected Articles.” National Archives, August 15, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1996/spring/1890-census-1.html.

Purnell, Brian. Fighting Jim Crow in the County of Kings: The Congress of Racial Equality in Brooklyn. University Press of Kentucky, 2013. doi:10.5810/kentucky/9780813141824.001.0001.

Ramirez, Anthony. “Barclays Arena Deal Raises a Reputed Link to Slavery.” News site. The New York Times, February 2, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/02/nyregion/02yards.html.

Rhodes-Pitts, Sharifa. Harlem Is Nowhere: A Journey to the Mecca of Black America. Reprint. New York: Back Bay Books, 2013.

Risam, Roopika. “On Disruption, Race, and the Digital Humanities.” Roopika Risam, January 3, 2015. http://roopikarisam.com/uncategorized/on-disruption-race-and-the-digital-humanities/.

Rock, Howard B., and Deborah Dash Moore. Cityscapes: A History of New York in Images. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Rosentraub, Mark S., and Michael B. Cantor. “A Ballpark and Neighborhood Change: Economic Integration, a Recession, and the Altered Demography of San Diego’s Ballpark District after Eight Years.” Elsevier Ltd 3, no. 3 (2012): 219–26.

San Pedro, Timothy J. “Silence as Shields: Agency and Resistances among Native American Students in the Urban Southwest.” Research in the Teaching of English 50, no. 2 (November 2015): 132–53.

San Pedro, Timothy J. “Silence as Weapons: Transformative Praxis among Native American Students in the Urban Southwest.” Equity & Excellence in Education 48 (December 2015): 511–28.

Singer, Alan. “Brooklyn’s African American History Remains Largely Forgotten and Unmarked.” Huffington Post, August 14, 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alan-singer/brooklyns-african-america_b_1772465.html.

“Sites of Memory.” Archives. T-Space Web Archive (University of Toronto), n.d. http://wayback.archive-it.org/6473/20160819144829/https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/holtorf/2.6.html.

“Snapshot.” Accessed February 28, 2017. http://www.adelinekoh.org/blog/2012/03/04/addressing-archival-silence-on-19th-century-colonialism-part-2-creating-a-nineteenth-century-postcolonial-archive/.

Snyder-Grenier, Ellen. Brooklyn: An Illustrated History. Critical Perspectives On the P. Pennsylvania: Temple University Press, 1996.

Spellen, Suzanne. “Building of the Day: 1095 St. Johns Place.” Brownstoner, May 5, 2011. http://www.brownstoner.com/architecture/building-of-the-294/.

Spellen, Suzanne. “Building of the Day: 1634 Dean Street.” Brownstoner, April 4, 2011. http://www.brownstoner.com/architecture/building-of-the-271/.

Spellen, Suzanne. “Past and Present: The Howard Colored Orphan Asylum, Crown Heights.” Content/ Blog. The Brownstoner, March 7, 2014. http://www.brownstoner.com/history/past-and-present-the-howard-colored-orphan-asylum-crown-heights/.

Stiles, Henry Reed. A History of the City of Brooklyn: Including the Old Town and Village of Brooklyn, the Town of Bushwick, and the Village and City of Williamsburgh. Vol. 3. 3 vols. Brooklyn, NY: Heritage Books, 1993.

“The Brooklyn Ghetto Neighborhoods of New York City.” TheRealStreetz.com, November 19, 2015. http://www.therealstreetz.com/2015/11/19/brooklyn-ghetto-story-nyc/.

Thompson, Wright. “Crime, Poverty Still Crushing Ebbets Field’s Spirit.” Sports. ESPN, April 13, 2007. http://www.espn.com/mlb/jackie/news/story?id=2830342.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, 2015.

“Voting in Early America.” Accessed April 27, 2017. http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/spring07/elections.cfm.

Ware, Kamau. “Black Gotham.” Accessed March 26, 2017. http://kamaustudios.com/blackgotham/.

Warerkar, Tanay. “Pacific Park’s Second All-Affordable Rental to Launch Lottery on Friday.” Curbed NY, January 11, 2017. http://ny.curbed.com/2017/1/11/14238100/pacific-park-brooklyn-38-sixth-avenue-affordable-housing-lottery.

Wellman, Judith. Brooklyn’s Promised Land: The Free Black Community of Weeksville. New York and London: New York University Press, 2014.

Wendell, Pritchett. Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto. Historical Studies of Urban America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Whitson, Roger. “DH, Archival Silence, and Linked Open Data.” Roger Whitson, March 4, 2012. http://www.rogerwhitson.net/?p=1509.

Wilder, Craig Steven. A Covenant with Color: Race and Social Power in Brooklyn. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Willensky, Elliot. When Brooklyn Was the World, 1920-1957. First. New York: Harmony Books, 1986.

Wood, David. “On Working with Opaque Silence in Group Psychotherapy.” Group Analysis; Sage Publications, Ltd. 49, no. 3 (September 2016): 233–48.

Wortham, Jenna. “Black Tweets Matter.” Smithsonian. Accessed February 28, 2017. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *